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Notes on the Collection of Transfers
W. J. Sidis
THE HALF-DAY ON TRANSFERS
54. Combination of Half-Day Time Limit. The most natural way to show whether a transfer is intended for use in A. M. or P. M. hours is to place that condition in the time limit, as is done in the old-type transfers and generally wherever there is a double set of punch-spaces for the hours. This includes the double-dial device, which also provides a double set of punch-spaces. In some instances of the single-dial device, there is a double set of punch-spaces for the minutes, so that the half-day may be said to be combined with the minute instead of the hour. In the case of Santa Barbara (Calif.) transfers, there are two rows of punch-spaces for the minutes, one for A. M. and one for P. M., thus:
One of the rows of "30's" is for A. M. use, and the other is for P. M.
Another way in which the half-day is combined with the timing is in the few instances where the time limit is stamped, and the statement "A. M." or "P. M.," as the case may be, is stamped with it. This may also be accompanied by some other mode of indicating the half-day.
55. Separate Punch for the Half-Day. A common device for indicating A. M. or P. M. on a transfer is to provide two punch-spaces, one labelled A. M. and the other P. M.; the space that is punched indicates the half-day in which the transfer is to be used. This device is used on the type known as the "Franklin Rapid Transfer," as well as on many other forms. Sometimes the P. M. space is dark and the A. M. space is light. This device we may call the AM-PM punch.
There being only two alternatives here, a simplification of this sort of device provides only a single punch-space, and distinguishes A. M. from P. M. by the presence or absence of a punch in that space. In such a case, it isbetter to have the punch mean A. M., for otherwise a 1 A. M. transfer might be converted by the passenger into a P. M. by merely punching that particular space. Such a device is indeed in use, and we may call it the A. M. punch.
We note the following systems using separate punch-spaces for the half-day alone, uncombined with other items:
Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway. (A. M. punch.)
Newport (R. I.) Electric system. (A. M. punch.)
United Electric Railways, Rhode Island. (Franklin forms only.)
Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway. (Franklin forms only; issue of 1923.)
Manhattan and Queens Traction Corporation.
Peekskill (N. Y.) Lighting and Railroad Company. (P. M. space dark.)
Easton (Pa.) Transit Company. (P. M. space dark.)
People's Motorbus Company of St. Louis. (Dark, blocks on each side of P. M.)
El Paso Electric Railway. (P. M. space dark.)
Denver Tramways Company. (A. M. punch.)
Market Street Railway Company, San Francisco.
Pacific Electric Railway, Southern California. ("Joint transfer" only.)
Los Angeles Motor Bus Company.
Glendale and Montrose Railway (Glendale, Calif.).
Hamilton (Ont.) Street Railway.
The shape and arrangement of these punch-spaces and the way they are worded varies considerably. They are usually small boxes, little, if at all, larger than the average hour-space. The A. M. and P. M. punch-spaces are usually so labelled, and arc close together, though sometimes they are placed at opposite ends of the transfer to make them easier to distinguish. However, the spaces often are more elaborate, as in the Easton transfers, where the two punch-spaces together occupy the entire left end of the transfer, one labelled "A. M. Transfer," and the other "P. M. Transfer."
With the simple A. M. punch, further explanation is necessary. The Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway provides a little star in a box to be punched for A. M., With the legend: "Not good in A. M. hours unless punched here." In Denver, however, there is no other explanation on the A. M. punch except, "A. M. if punched."
56. Combination of Half-Day with Other Items. The Stedman transfer forms, as well as many other types resembling these in that particular respect, have their own peculiar way of indicating whether the transfer is intended to be used in A. M. or P. M. hours. Just as in old type transfers there is a double set of time-limit punch-spaces, one set for A. M. hours, and the other for P. M. hours; so in the Stedman and other similar types (which we may group as Stedmanic), a double set of punch-spaces is provided for the receiving line, as follow. The list of receiving lines is arranged so that one line comes below another; a dark strip covers the right half of the entire group; and the receiving line is punched in the light space or in the dark space, according to whether the time limit is A. M. or P. M. In some cases, such as the Cleveland Railways, there is no color distinction, but the two columns are labelled A. M. and P. M. respectively, the separation of the punch-spaces only being found on the P. M. side in some cases. Of course, where the list of receiving lines has to be omitted, this becomes simply the AM-PM punch. The following sample shows how this is done (from Clifton form, Cleveland Railway). Usually the left side is light and the right side dark. Of course there may be more than one such double column without affecting the principle of the arrangement; we may even have each punch-space separately divided into an A. M. and a P. M. portion.
In the cases above considered, the half-day may be said to be combined with the receiving line. It may, in an exactly similar way, be combined with other items, such as the receiving direction (Los Angeles Railway, issue of 1920), or the issuing line (Harrisburg Railways). In the case of the 1920 issue of Los Angeles transfers, there are two rows of "NSEW," one over the other, the first row, indicating A. M., in light type, and the second row, indicating P. M., in heavy type. There being two such pairs of rows, one for "Out Trip," and one for "In Trip," combines it further with the issuing direction. In the Harrisburg (Pa.) case, the combination is made in the same way as in the Stedmanic forms. The following systems are mentioned as using such devices, combining the half-day with some other item not involving time:
Boston, Revere Beach, and Lynn Railroad. (Stedmanic.)
Connecticut Company. (Special Derby form, Stedmanic.)
Danbury and Bethel Street Rail\vay. (Danbury, Conn.; Stedman.)
Richmond Light and Railroad Company. (Staten Island, N. Y.; Stedmanic.)
Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) and Wappingers Falls Railroad. (Stedman.)
Peekskill (N. Y.) Lighting and Railroad Company. (Stedman.)
Kingston (N. Y.) Consolidated Railroad. (Stedman.)
Hudson River and Eastern Traction Company. (Ossining, N. Y.; Stedman.)
Harrisburg Railways. (Combined with issuing line.)
Pennsylvania-New Jersey Railway. (Penn. suburbs of Trenton. Imitation of Stedman type; A. M. punch-space to the left of each receiving route, and P. M. punch-space to the right.)
Lehigh Valley (Pa.) Transit Company. (Excepting Easton lines; 1923 issue. Imitation of Stedman, but combination is with receiving direction.)
Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway Company. (Stedmanic.)
Rochester, Lockport, and Buffalo (N. Y.) Railroad Company. (Stedmanic.)
Lake Shore Electric Railway Co. (Lorain and Sandusky, Ohio; Stedmanic.)
Cleveland Railway Company. (Stedman but no color distinction.)
Cleveland Southwestern Railway and Light Company. (Stedmanic.)
Columbus Railway, Light, and Power Company. (4th St. form only; Stedmanic, but without color distinction.)
San Antonio (Tex.) Public Service Company. (Stedmanic.)
Municipal Railway of San Francisco. (Combined with issuing direction; an A. M. set of punch-spaces "in" and "out" at the top of the transfer, and another similar, but dark, set for P. M. at the bottom of the transfer.)
Los Angeles Railway. (1920 issue; see above.)
This combination of the half-day with other items is not a substitute for the punching device, but rather aims to punch several things at once. There are similar devices to combine other items. The old type transfer combines the half-day with the time limit, here it naturally belongs; we have also seen it combined with the hour, or even with the minute, alone.
57. A. M. and P. M. Surcharges. In some instances the half-day is indicated on a transfer by some form of surcharge, though this usually happens where there are separate A. M. and P. M. forms. In the case of the pure Smith patent forms as issued in New York City, time limit punch-spaces are surcharged in black, differently for A. M. and P. M. Also a little black oblong is surcharged on attached coupons of transfers to be used in P. M. hours, which we may call the P. M. quadrat. These surcharges do not appear where a different device, such as the attached coupon, is used to denote the half-day. In the case of the New York Railways Company, there is the additional surcharge of "1" for A. M., and "2" for P. M.
In the 1921 issue of Los Angeles Railway transfers, A. M. and P. M. are distinguished by the labelling of the time limit punch-spaces (as above), and also by the color of the date surcharge, which was different for the two half-days. However, in the 1920 and 1924 issues, where the half-day is otherwise indicated, all surcharges are red.
In the case of the Cincinnati Traction Company, the letters "AM" or "PM" are included with the date surcharge. In this case, however, there is also a difference of color in the transfer itself, thus making it a different form. A similar case is the time-clock punch on New Jersey refund coupons of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, which stamps, besides the dial pointing to the time limit, the letters "AM" or "PM" and the date; here again is another way of indicating the half-day, namely, by the Pope coupon.
In these cases it is difficult to say whether the A. M. and the P. M. transfers should be considered as separate forms. We should say that where the only difference is in the time surcharges and in labelling of punch-spaces dealing with time limits alone, they should not be so considered. A difference in color of transfer (as in the Cincinnati case) or of printing (as in Kansas City), or an essential difference in arrangement of parts, should constitute the A. M. and P. M. transfer forms as different.
58. Separate Half-Day Forms. In some cases, as where the Moran type of transfer is used, there are separate and P. M. transfers. In the case of the Moran type, A. M. and P. M. transfers are of a different color and are given a different form-number; usually the P. M. transfer gets the form-number immediately following the corresponding A. M. transfer. Furthermore, the time limit being indicated by successive attached coupons, as explained in Sec. 51, the omission of certain owl hours results in an A. M. form that has fewer coupons attached to it, and to that extent we have a different arrangement of parts. This type of transfer, with its concomitant indication of the half-day by different forms, is used on the Boston Elevated Railway system (Boston, Mass.) and on the New York and Queens County Railway system (northern Queens Borough, New York City).
Where there are such different forms, they are usually labelled A. M. and P. M., respectively, in some way. The usual differentiation of forms is by color, as with the Interborough Rapid Transit system (New York City) and the Cincinnati Traction Company. In Kansas City the differentiation is in the color of printing, the A. M. transfer being in green print and the P. M. transfers in black.
Where color is the basis of differentiating the A. M. from the P. M. transfer, there is likely to be only those two colors (as in the Cincinnati and Queens County cases mentioned above, green for A. M. and red for P. M.) ; but there may easily be a color schedule indicating other conditions, each thing to be indicated having one color for A. M. and another for P. M. Thus, the Interborough Rapid Transit System has a color schedule denoting the line and direction of issue, with pairs of colors in that way, as follows:
Elevated North: A. M. white, P. M. red.
Elevated South: A. M. green, P. M. yellow-brown.
Subway North: A. M. purple, P. M. brown.
Subway South: A. M. pink, P. M. blue or grey.
In Boston there is a similar color schedule.
59. Indication of Half-Day by Attached Coupons. We have already mentioned the Ham patent type of transfer, in which there are two attached coupons each containing a complete tabular time limit. The one on the left of the main body of the transfer is light, and is for A. M. hours; the right-hand coupon is dark, and is for P. M. hours. The transfer is issued with only one of these coupons, the one not wanted being detached before issue, and the transfer is A. M. or P. M., according to which coupon is attached to the transfer as issued. We may note that a Ham transfer is never issued complete, but always lacking one of its attached coupons. This type of transfer was used in the case of a few forms issued in Washington, D. C.
A development of this is the Pope patent coupon, whose use is found scattered all over the United States. Here one attached coupon takes the place of the two of the Ham type, and it is generally not concerned with the time limit, which is indicated on the main body of the transfer. A. M. or P. M. is indicated merely by the presence or absence of the attached coupon. This column frequently contains other matters, such as the company name, the issuing line or division, and a duplicate of dating and serial-number surcharges. The following sample is an indication of the general arrangement, although in some cases (such as the New Jersey refund coupon of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad) there is only the inscription, "Void if Detached," with the half-day. The half-day indicated by the presence of the coupon is always P. M., for otherwise simply detaching the coupon would convert an A. M. into a P. M. coupon of the same day, good for another twelve hours.
The "Void if Detached," or "Not Good if Detached," is usually found on these P. M. coupons, and, indeed, on most attached coupons.
Where the P. M. coupon is used, it is necessary to explain that, without the coupon, the transfer is good only in A. M. hours; and this notice, being intended for passengers who receive the transfer without the coupon, must be placed on the main body of the transfer. By the presence of this notice it is always possible for the collector to tell when the Pope device is used, even when the P. M. coupon itself is not attached to the transfer.
The P. M. coupon usually has its conditions in light printing on a dark block, which is sometimes divided into two parts with space between them for printing or surcharges. The East Saint Louis (Illinois) Railways Company, however, uses the Pope patent coupon without the dark block.
We may note that the Los Angeles Railway uses a P. M. coupon resembling the standard Pope patent form in their issue of 1924.
A variation of this P. M. coupon is the Pope time limit, in which the P. M. coupon contains, printed in light" color on a dark block, the hour numbers from 1 to 12 and the letters "PM," and, if needed, a separate set of minute-numbers labelled "Fraction of Hour" in a row below. On the main body of the transfer is a similar set of punch-spaces without the dark block, labelled "AM." The P. M. coupon is used as in the regular type of the device; and the time limit is punched as in the ordinary case of a double set of punch-spaces. This type is essentially similar to the Ham type, except that the matter for the A. M. coupon is placed on the main body of the transfer. The following is a sample of the attached coupon of this type of transfer, which is used in Brooklyn, N. Y.
The regular Pope P. M. coupon is attached to the main body of the transfer at its right side, and to the pad at its left side. Being thus placed between pad and transfer, it is a simple matter to issue the transfer either with or without the P. M. coupon. We note that the P. M. time limit used by the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit system and by the Brooklyn City Railroad is attached at the bottom of the transfer, while the pad end of the transfer is at the top; this means that, for A. M. transfers, the coupon has to be detached and thrown away as a separate operation. We note that one of the forms issued by the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit system is what we may call a rush-hour form, being intended to effect a transfer during the early morning rush hours only, since, at other hours, the change in question is made within the limits of a prepayment station; this form is arranged as though a Pope time limit coupon had been detached, but, of course, none is ever printed, with the result that we have only the A. M. punch-spaces at the bottom of the transfer. This can be distinguished from a transfer whose time limit coupon has been detached, by the fact that the bottom edge is smooth instead of rouletted.
In the case of the Ham type, it is required to detach coupons at issue with equal facility from either end of the transfer. This cannot be done on a pad, so Ham forms must be kept loose by the conductor. This is a great disadvantage. Denotation of the half-day by attached coupons is very common, and probably the Pope P. M. coupon is more widely used than any other single device in variation of the old-type transfer punches. We may say that in our own transfer collection, over half of the forms found used attached coupons for this purpose.
We note the peculiar inscription on P. M. coupons in Queens Borough, New York City, on the New York and Queens County system and on the Steinway Railways (Third Avenue Railway system). On these P. M. coupons, below the dark block, is the inscription "1 to 5." The meaning of this is not apparent. We note that the former of the two systems mentioned ceased using Pope coupons in June, 1923, and now uses the Moran type of transfer.
60. Distinction Between A. M. and P. M. Ordinarily the A. M. indication would be from 12 midnight to 12 noon, the remaining time being indicated by P. M. However, there is frequently doubt as to which classification the noon and midnight hours fall into, and sometimes even as to where the times between 12 and 1 go. This, however, is usually settled by the context of the transfer, and, in the case of old-type transfers, no question arises as to this point. Besides this, we note that frequently, especially in the case of separate A. M. and P. M. forms, the division between the half-days is not at noon and midnight, but several hours later. This is the case, for instance, on Smith forms. However, in most cases an inspection of the transfer will indicate the nature of the division.
The following data as to our own collection (as of [Sunday,] Dec. 7, 1924) will give an idea as to the relative frequency of the various half-day devices:
Old type indication, 217
Combination with hour only, 61
Combination with minute only (inc. single dial), 24
Double dial (inc. concentric dials), 22
Uncombined A.M. punch, 17
Uncombined AM-PM punch, 57
Surcharge (or print) and punch-spaces only,169
Color or other form distinctions, 54
Combination with receiving route (Stedmanic), 69
Combination with other conditions of place, 42
Ham patent, 3
P. M. coupon, 537
Pope time limit, 189
No half-day marked, 28
Total forms l,489
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