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CONDITIONS OF PLACE
77. Varieties of Conditions of Place. We have already assumed the division of conditions of place (and this applies also to conditions of time and circumstance) into issuing and receiving conditions. Where conditions of time are indicated on a transfer, they are practically always receiving conditions.
The issuing conditions (or conditions of issuance) describe time, place, and circumstance under which the transfer was issued, whether contained in the original form of the transfer or indicated on it by the conductor by punching or some other similar device (such as detachment of attached coupons, etc.) Receiving conditions (or conditions of acceptance) describe the sort of time, place, and circumstance under which the transfer is valid for fare, and what further privileges, if any, the passenger is entitled to thereunder. As we have already said, conditions of time, as indicated on a transfer, are conditions of acceptance (receiving conditions).
Receiving conditions of place would describe on what routes, and in what directions, and from where to where, the transfer may be used for fare. Any further privileges may be classed as receiving conditions of circumstance.
Thus, the conditions of place that are also conditions of acceptance are: transfer point; receiving route; receiving direction; and final fare limit. The transfer point is the one common to the issuing and the receiving route, and it might therefore be doubtful whether to classify it as a condition of issuance or of acceptance; but it belongs under the latter because it really means where the passenger should board the receiving car, it being a matter of indifference whether or not the passenger leaves the issuing car at the same place. The walk-over privilege is a case illustrating this. There the issuing car does not even pass the transfer point at close range.
In this chapter we shall only consider receiving conditions of place, for the issuing conditions have been quite thoroughly treated in the preceding chapter.
78. Implication of Receiving Conditions. The universal transfer privilege (see Section 4) is the ordinary basis of transfer privileges, and is generally understood where nothing further is mentioned. Accordingly, many transfer forms specify nothing whatever concerning conditions of acceptance except in general regulations which amount to little more than a statement of the universal transfer privilege. We may say that the receiving conditions are denoted by implication in these forms. The more closely the issuing unit and section are specified, the more fully the receiving conditions may be left to implication.
The Connecticut Company is a fair example. Although punch spaces for line and direction are provided, they are never used, and even the regulations printed on the transfer state simply: "GOOD ONLY at transfer point on first car after time cancelled. NOT GOOD on line from which issued. Subject to the rules of the Company." On certain Peekskill (N. Y.) forms, all that is said about conditions of acceptance is this: "Good only on next car leaving point of transfer." The Lehigh Valley Transit Company (Pa.) specifies the following: "Good only on the day on next connecting car from Junction to limit of passage, subject to the rules of this Company."
On the other hand, even these regulations, with no definite statement of receiving conditions, are sometimes more specific. Some Cleveland forms, differing from the usual Stedman type there prevailing, state: "Good for continuous trip on first car on any intersecting line if presented at intersection on date and before time punched." In Erie, Pa., it is still more specific: "Good only for one continuous passage when presented within the time specified, and will be accepted on any car at first or last points only on intersecting lines, but not returning over line or part of line just traversed. This is a fine statement of the universal transfer privilege.
Other systems using this method of implication are:
These are cases in which all receiving conditions are implied; but it will usually happen that some item or other of the receiving condition is left to be implied. For instance, it is not usual to specify the final fare limit unless there is something specially complex about the tare limits on the system or on that particular line. Usually, unless the transfer privilege is of the overlap variety, it is understood that the final fare limit is the same for the transfer as for a single-zone cash fare.
Again, the transfer point is usually left to implication as being at the intersection of the issuing and receiving routes. There are many other ways in which receiving conditions are implied rather than expressly stated.
In the preceding chapter we have seen that issuing conditions are sometimes left to implication, although those are frequently omitted altogether as unnecessary, since the receiving conditions effect the validity of the transfer, while issuing conditions are practically useful only in so far as they throw light on the receiving conditions.
79. Wording of Receiving Conditions. Although the various elements of any possible or impossible receiving condition (that is, any condition under which the transfer will or will not be good) may be separately expressed, it is usually the case that transfer point, receiving route, direction, and final fare limit, or as many of them as it is desired to include, are all expressed together. This may be done by general description of cases in which the transfer will be accepted, supplemented by exceptions and additional cases (note that this general description may resolve itself into such implication as considered in the preceding section), or it may consist of an itemized list of each possible case for acceptance of the transfer, whether or not with any way of designating which of these cases is intended in the particular instance at time of issue.
A sample of a description of a case in which a transfer will be accepted is to be found on the coupons attached to the transfers of the Long Island Electric Railway (from the attached coupon of the regular form issued on the Queens Division): "GOOD ONLY from Washington and South Sts. to Farmers Ave." Here the transfer point and the final fare limit are stated, the receiving route and direction following immediately from this. But the final fare limit is usually a matter of implication, and is stated in this instance because the particular system has the overlap transfer privilege. Usually the statement of conditions of acceptance consists of route and direction, or street and direction, or transfer point and direction; sometimes several of these conditions are combined to make the description more explicit. Sometimes a destination (or, as in the case above, a final fare limit) replaces the direction, and sometimes, owing to the arrangement of car lines of the system, it may be considered unnecessary to specify direction. Other combinations, such as transfer point and route or street (with or without direction), are also frequent. An example may be found in. the list of receiving conditions on the transfer form of the New York, Westchester, and Connecticut Traction Company, a subsidiary of the Third Avenue Railway system of New York (the line is Pelham to Tuckahoe):
A sample from the Hudson River line form of the Public Service Railway of New Jersey will indicate the use of transfer point and direction instead of route names: "Main and Mercer N. or S." An instance of the use of street and direction: "At 7th & Market Sts. to East on 7th St." (From the Shellpot & West 4th Street form of the Wilmington and Philadelphia Traction Company.) Route name and direction only: "To 14th Street line E. or W." (New York Railways Company.)
It is not always, however, that all the conditions of acceptance are stated together. Generally the old type forms have their punch spaces containing the receiving route, named either by the individual route or by the street and direction; and these are grouped according to the transfer points, indicated at the top of each group. Thus, when the destination (or receiving route) is punched, that indicates that the transfer point is the one at the head of that group of punch spaces. These groups are usually separated by heavier division lines. For an example of this mode of expressing conditions of acceptance, see the diagram in Section 56 [Chap. 12]. We shall consider later in this chapter other special types and devices.
80. Punching and Listing of Conditions of Acceptance. Conditions of acceptance are usually indicated either by punching or by listing. In either case, a list of all circumstances of acceptance, in so far as it is desired to describe them, is printed on the transfer. Where the punching device is used, the passenger must ask in the first place for a transfer to a particular line and direction. This is punched on the transfer, so that the transfer is good there and not elsewhere. In the case of listing, the passenger simply asks for a transfer, and gets one which he may use on any of the lines listed under the circumstances as indicated. It is often difficult to distinguish between these two devices, and frequently the difference is one of usage, since it happens that a form containing what are intended to be punch spaces simply becomes a list through the fact that actual punching of the destination does not occur.
81. Additions and Exceptions. In Section 78 we have seen that, where nothing is said as to conditions of acceptance, the universal transfer privilege is implied as a general rule. In some systems the exceptions to this universal privilege are noted, usually by an endorsed listing; also sometimes such additional privileges as walk-overs, etc. Where the notations are by exceptions, it will usually mean exceptions to the universal privilege; in any case, exceptions to the general regulations, which may call for a restricted transfer privilege.
In many cases the issuing line serves as an implied exception to the general rule. We may say, though, that outside of such a case, exceptions are not punched. As a peculiarity of the Moran patent forms, we remark that the route punch on those forms indicates the locality to which the transfer is not good, and therefore it is really a case of punched exceptions, However, the locality punched being that from which the transfer was issued, it constitutes by implication a condition of issuance; in fact, it is a section of the issuing unit, and the only way in which those forms indicate issuing conditions.
The Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit system, in its regular two-cent transfer forms, prints the exceptions on the back of the form. These endorsed exceptions explain the exceptions to their use on each of certain named lines, and there is a column heading "Lines" on the left, and "Exceptions" on the right. The following illustration (St. John's Place, form "B") will show the arrangement:
These may be called endorsed exceptions, classed by receiving line.
The Los Angeles Railway, on its regular forms issued since May 1, 1921, also uses the device of endorsing the exceptions on the main body of the form, as follows (illustration from form "B in" of 1924 issue):
Additions (walk-over privileges) are similarly endorsed on the attached route coupon. On the back of the main body of the transfer, at the bottom, are also a few additions in the way of transfer points not conforming to the regulations, and transfer points where the transfer will be accepted on the issuing line, either directly or as a repeat.
We may say that listing of conditions is based on the idea of special transfer privileges, while exceptions are based on the idea of universal privilege.
82. Explanation of Punches. Sometimes a punch referring to some issuing condition, or even to a receiving condition in general terms (such as zone or direction), will be accompanied by an explanation as to the conditions of acceptance implied by that punch. This may be done by a listing under the punch space, as in the Rochester (N. Y.) forms, where the transfer is divided into two parts according to issuing direction, the punch being AM-PM in each half. Under the heading of each half of the transfer comes a list of conditions of acceptance. Similarly, in regular and repeat forms of the Public Service Railway (New Jersey) not issuable in Newark, the transfer is punched for the issuing direction (northbound and southbound, eastbound and westbound, or inbound and outbound), and under each issuing direction is a list of the receiving conditions.
But the explanation is generally by endorsement, this endorsed matter consisting of a list of receiving conditions or exceptions classed by punches. A simple case is that of the "M" (Grand and Moneta line) forms of the Los Angeles Railway, issued since May 1, 1921. The endorsed exceptions, walk-over privileges, etc., are found on these forms as explained in the preceding section, but both exceptions and walk-over privileges are divided into two parts, the second part being headed "When punched in circle." This refers to a circular punch space enclosed in a box, which is punched only when the car has passed the loop Oil Second Street at time of issuance. In this way there are provided two sets of receiving conditions, according to which section of the route issued the transfer. Again, the same company, in its 1920 issue, had its transfers punched for receiving and issuing direction, with explanations on the back as to what each combination of issuing and receiving direction gave in the way of conditions of acceptance. The Pacific Electric Railway, in many of its 1924 forms, has the issuing line punched, and on the back there are listed the receiving conditions for each issuing line (in the Pasadena form the exceptions are endorsed in the same way.)
These explanations may be considered as simply classified listings or exceptions.
83. Other Endorsed Conditions. The listing of the receiving conditions themselves is sometimes found in the shape of endorsed matter. In the Newark forms of the Public Service Railway, this endorsed matter is headed "TRANSFER POINTS," but actually is a complete list of all receiving conditions. There is nothing particularly remarkable about this device, but the collector should note when receiving conditions are endorsed instead of being listed on the front of the transfer, as most conditions usually are.
84. Parallel Conditions. We have seen that the old type of transfers usually had the receiving routes listed in groups, each group being headed by the transfer point. The so-called "Franklin Rapid Transfer" type has simplified this somewhat by having the transfer points and the "destination" (receiving route) listed in parallel columns, the destination column being the column of punch spaces, and indicating the transfer point in the space opposite the one punched. This parallel column device, which we may call a "Franklinoid" type, has been used in other transfer forms, sometimes with variations. Thus, the punch column for the receiving route may be divided in the Stedmanic manner, as is the case with the United Electric Railways (R.I.) forms which are not "Franklin Rapid Transfer" in the 1924 issue; or the parallel columns may be simply listing of conditions; or they may be independent parallel columns, as with the Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway, where the transfer point and the receiving route, not being necessarily opposite one another, must be punched separately. Again, the endorsed listing of conditions may be made in the parallel-column manner, as with the Pittsburgh Railway where there arc three parallel columns, for transfer points, receiving routes, and final fare limits respectively (in Syracuse, N. Y., the regular parallel-column form of listing is used).
The Franklin Rapid Transfer forms issued in Providence use numbers instead of the names of the transfer points, with an endorsed explanation of the meaning of the numbers; there are also qualifying notes indicating exceptions on all forms of this system, the United Electric Railways Company.
To illustrate further the parallel-column device on the Franklin Rapid Transfer forms, we will give a diagram of the parallel columns in the Maple & Mittineague form (1923 issue) of the Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway:
The punch is placed in the "Destination" column. "T on T" stands for "Transfer on Transfer," and indicates that the transfer is a repeat.
85. Combination of Receiving Conditions With Other Conditions. The receiving conditions are often combined with some other sorts of conditions, especially of issuance. The "From-To" punch is a common case of this. Also, the receiving conditions are frequently classified with the issuing direction, especially by a device similar to the Rochester plan of dividing the transfer into two halves, with a list of receiving conditions in each half, to be taken as listing or as a set of punch spaces. We have also seen that receiving conditions are, especially in the Stedmanic transfers, combined with the half-day.
We note the following systems as using the combination of receiving conditions with the issuing direction:
Such combination also occurs in the device for stating both is using and receiving conditions in the same punch space, so that both are punched together.
The "row-and-column" device of combining several conditions (the arrangement used in the Stedmanic type) is also used to combine several different kinds of receiving conditions; as, for instance, where the lists of transfer points are divided into four columns headed "N." "S." "E." "W." In such case (1921 issue, Pacific Electric Railway), a punch of a certain transfer point in the column headed "E" means that the transfer is good on eastbound cars at that particular point. Similarly, two columns are frequently used in the same way, headed "In" and "Out," or, sometimes, "North" and "South," or "East" and "West."
86. Direction Punches. In many cases there is an independent set of punch spaces for the receiving direction, which may be an "In-Out" punch or a "North-South-East-West punch. On some systems or sub-systems such as the Eighth Avenue Railroad or the North Avenue Railroad in New York City), where traffic is only in one of two opposite directions, those two directions alone need to be named (in the instances named, the punch is "North-South). This direction punch may be combined with other data, as in the 1920 issue of the Los Angeles Railway (see Section 56). Points of the compass are frequently indicated only by their respective initials.
Generally there is nothing distinctive about a direction punch, but sometimes a peculiar arrangement is to be noted. Thus, with the Capitol Traction Company (D. C.), the punch boxes are arranged to form a square divided into four parts by its two diagonals; the letters N, S, E, W, are each placed in one of these four triangular boxes.
One of the most characteristic arrangements peculiar to a direction punch is the compass arrangement, in such form as the following:
The above arrangement, which we may call the "compass punch," is adopted for the direction punch on the Kansas City Railways. In the case of the San Diego Electric Railway, a compass dial is used, concentric with the hour and minute dials. The Trenton and Mercer County Traction Corporation utilizes the four corners left vacant by the single dial, and places one direction-punch space in each corner.
As we have seen at the end of the previous section, the direction punch may sometimes be combined with other conditions; but frequently it is independent, and often it supplies as much of the issuing conditions as are indicated. It is also sometimes combined with the half-way in a row-and-column combination similar to the Stedmanic device. We may also note that sometimes a direction punch is intended to indicate issuing and not receiving direction.
87. The Square-Box Type. Punch boxes containing descriptions of receiving routes or transfer points are c usually oblong, to give room for printed lines, although square boxes are common where only numbers or single letters are printed in the box. But there are transfer forms, such as those of the Capitol Traction Company (D. C.), in which most of the transfer is ruled into square boxes reminding one of graph-plotting paper, each box containing a description of a condition under which the transfer will be accepted. A similar arrangement is to be found on the transfer forms of the United Railways of St. Louis, but there each box contains a route name, printed diagonally, probably to give more room. The square-box type can hardly be considered as a special device, but it gives the transfer a peculiar appearance that cannot be mistaken even at first sight.