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Notes on the Collection of Transfers
W. J. Sidis
COLORING OF TRANSFERS
103. Color Schedules. By the color schedule of any system (in any issue or set of issues) we mean the characteristic colors of the transfers issued on that system, including any special color for prints and surcharges (black being the standard color for the former and red for the latter). In many cases coloring is the most important indication of difference between forms, and in some cases we distinguish forms only by the coloring, when what would otherwise be the same form is, on different occasions, issued in different colors. The Morris County (N. J,) Traction system, and the Mauch Chunk and Lehighton (Pa.) Transit system issue forms of different colors on their different lines, but the forms do not otherwise differ, so that the issuing line is denoted by implication in the color of the transfer.
The color of a transfer may indicate issuing conditions of place, and sometimes conditions of time, also. There may also be further variations. We shall speak of a coloring as based on those col1ditions which affect it on that particular system, We note that in the case of street car transfers in Syracuse, N. Y., the coloring is based on the receiving direction.
The color of a transfer is usually the color of the paper the transfer is printed on. However, there are cases in which a block of the coloring is simply laid on the front of the transfer, as on some of the coupons issued by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (connecting New York and New Jersey). We may speak of this as a "light block" or, as it may be called, surface coloring, This sort of coloring is frequently laid on in peculiar wavy designs which we may call the color design. Such color designs sometimes are made in the paper itself even when the color is not merely a light block.
104. Individual Coloring. By this we mean where each form issued by the system has its own color, independent of any further conditions. This does not preclude two forms being colored alike, but where individual coloring prevails there need be nothing in common between two forms that happened to be colored alike because of a shortage of colors. In such a case, the color usually indicates the transfer-issuing unit, but, where each unit issues different forms, the coloring may not even be based on that.
Individual coloring of transfer forms has been found by us on the following systems:
Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway Company.
Middlesex and Boston Street Railway Company.
New York and Stamford Railway.
Third Avenue Railway System (for forms issued in Westchester County).
Interborough Rapid Transit Company (New York City).
Long Island Electric System.
Staten Island (N. Y. City) Rapid Transit Company.
Westchester Street Railway (White Plains, N. Y., and vicinity).
Peeks kill (N. Y.) Lighting and Railroad System.
Kingston (N. Y.) Consolidated Railroad.
Atlantic City (N. J.). and Shore Railway System.
Atlantic Coast Electric Railway (Long Branch and Asbury Park, N. J.).
Trenton (N. J.) and Mercer County Traction System.
Public Service Railway (New Jersey. Individual coloring does not apply to Newark forms; also repeat forms usually colored like corresponding originals).
Harrisburg (Pa.) Railways.
Frankford, Tacony, and Holmesburg (Phila.) Street Railway.
Pennsylvania-New Jersey Railway System (Trenton, N. J., to vicinity in Pa.).
Wilmington and Philadelphia Transit System.
Lehigh Valley (Pa.) Transit System (in issue of 1923 color is independent of issuing direction, but is based only on issuing route).
Easton Transit Company (Easton, Pa.).
Scranton (Pa.) Railway Company.
United Traction Company (Albany, N. Y., and vicinity).
International Railway (Niagara River region. Color schedule variable).
Pittsburgh Railways Company.
Washington Railway and Electric Company.
Capitol Traction Company (Washington, D. C.).
Lake Shore Electric Railway (Cleveland to Toledo, Ohio).
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway Company (regular forms only).
Northern Ohio Transit and Light Company (Akron, Canton, and vicinity).
City of Ashtabula (Ohio).
Columbus (Ohio) Railway, Power, and Light Company.
East St. Louis (Ill.) Railway Company.
Galveston (Tex.) Electric Railway.
El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway.
Pacific Electric Railway (southern Calif.).
San Diego (Calif.) Electric Railway.
B. & H. Transportation Company (Long Beach, Calif.).
Bay Cities Transit Company (Santa Monica and Venice, Calif.).
Santa Barbara (Calif.) and Suburban Railway Company.
On some of these systems, the color of the printing differs in different forms as well as the color of the paper, thus increasing the possibilities of color combinations. In most cases, the color is really based on the issuing route, or the issuing route and direction. We have omitted cases where the coloring is based on direction, for instance, even though there is only one form for each direction, as with the Washington Rapid Transit Company; or cases where there is only one form issue, as the Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway or the Community Traction Company of Toledo, Ohio. Also, we have omitted cases where forms are issued which are alike except for color, even though that color practice denotes the issuing unit, which, however, is not indicated on the form in any way. This latter arrangement is found in the following systems:
Hudson River and Eastern Traction Company (Ossining, N.Y.).
Morris County (N. J.) Traction Company.
Mauch Chunk and Lehighton (Pa.) Transit Company.
Individual coloring usually means coloring based on the issuing unit, though this is frequently compounded with the class of transfer, or with the half-day (as with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company). In fact, we have included two cases (the Public Service Railway of N. J. and the Lehigh Valley Issue of 1923) in which the coloring is directly based on the issuing route, and it is hardly accurate to call the color schedule an individual one.
105. Uniform Coloring. On some systems, all transfers are colored alike; this we may call uniform coloring. This also includes the cases in which a single form is issued for the entire system. In many cases, particularly where the uniform coloring does not consist of but a single form, the uniform color will be white with black print. Sometimes, where the color is otherwise uniform, the shade of the print will differ in different forms according to some condition of issuance, time, or circumstance. Also the color of surcharges (the usual uniform color of surcharges is red) will similarly vary, as with the Fifth Avenue Coach Company of New York City and the free transfer forms of the New York Railways Company.
In many cases there is uniform coloring but for a few exceptional forms which may have their individual coloring, or which may be colored on some other basis.
106. Variable Color Schedules. A color schedule is said to be variable as to certain forms when, in that particular case, the form may be issued in more than one color, resulting in several forms differing in color only. With the Connecticut Company, for instance, except for the forms issued in the eastern end of the state, and a couple of special forms only used in extraordinary cases, there is a uniform coloring for the whole system, which is changed each month, so that the color indicates the month i only. Every month there is a different color, five colors in all being used. Of course, this may be regarded as a new issue each month, but, with such frequent variation and return to the original forms, it is hardly a new issue when the color changes. The Boston Elevated Railway Company occasionally changes its entire color schedule, but infrequently enough to make it reasonable to regard it as a new issue. Colors may be changed oftener than once a month; in Rochester, N. Y., they are changed once a week. Other systems use forms of different colors on every car. (This does not mean that there are as many colors as cars, but simply that forms of different colors, otherwise alike, are issued without any special distinction being drawn between them.) Sometimes the change is made every day; in other cases, such as the International Railway (Buffalo, N. Y.), the color of any form is likely to be changed haphazard. All these are cases of variable color schedules. One case that we have already considered is where the color indicates in practice the issuing route, but with nothing on the transfer to indicate that, and, with what would otherwise be the same form being issued in different colors, we have a variable color schedule with a significant variation. Where the color is used to indicate the month, or the week, or the day, we also have a significant variation. Other cases we may call irregular variations in color schedules. Of course, this sort of variation may apply only to certain forms.
107. Coloring Based On Class of Transfer. It will frequently happen that, in a system issuing different classes of transfers, each class (or each group of classes) will have its own distinctive color, or even its own distinctive color schedule. Thus, the two-cent transfer forms of the New York Railways Company have a color schedule based on the issuing direction; the free transfers are white and use the direction colors for their surcharges. The Cleveland Railway Company uses individual coloring for its regular or pay transfers, while all the free or repeat transfers are white with black print. The Brooklyn (N. Y.) systems have developed this to the highest extent, for those systems probably distinguish more classes of transfers than any others. In both of those systems, "Continuing Trip Tickets" are white, and "Conductor's Feeder Tickets" are pink; "Agent's Tickets" are, with one exception, pink on the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit System and green on the Brooklyn City Railroad; on the Brooklyn City Railroad, the three divisions, C, D, and E, of the "Conductor's Transfer" class, are respectively colored brown, green, and yellow.
The nature of the color schedule may even differ for different classes of transfers; for instance, on the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad ("Hudson Tubes" New York to New Jersey) the New Jersey refund coupons were, before 1923, all white, and, since then, were colored on the basis of the issuing station; other classes of transfers have variable coloring. In 1922, the exit coupons issued in New Jersey had variable coloring, while the New York exit coupons were purple, the New York refund coupons yellow, and the New Jersey refund coupons white. On the Los Angeles Railway, while the coloring of regular transfers is based on the issuing direction, each of the special classes has its own characteristic color.
108. Coloring Based on Half-Day. We need say little as to color distinctions based on the half-day, Since it was fairly discussed in Section 58. We have found this distinction in the following systems:
Boston Elevated Railway Company.
Interborogh Rapid Transit Company (New York City).
New York and Queens County Railway (issue of 1923; A. M. green, P. M. brown).
Cincinnati Traction Company (A. M. red, P. M. green).
Kansas City Railways (color of print distinguished: green for A. M., black for P. M.).
Los Angeles Railway (Issue of 1921 only: distinction only in color of surcharges, and would hardly be considered as a difference of form).
This form of color distinction is a regular feature of the
Moran patent type of transfers. In the case of the Boston Elevated Railway and
the Interborough Rapid Transit, there is a separate and complete color schedule
' for each of the two half-days.
Based on Issuing Direction. The issuing direction is a frequent basis
for the color schedule. There are two-direction and four-direction schedules.
The four- direction schedule is for north; south, east, and west, sometimes with
separate colors for north or south, and ' for east or west. Two-direction
schedules are for "in" and "out," or for
"north-south" and "east-west;" or even (as with the regular
transfers in Philadelphia) for "east-north" and
"west-south." Smith patent forms usually use this basis for color
schedules. The New York Railways Company uses the following schedule: north,
green; south, red; west, purple; east, orange; east-west (lines issuing the same
form in either direction), white. The Third Avenue Railway system in Manhattan
and the Bronx boroughs of New York City, uses the same schedule and adds
lavender for north-south. This is a typical four-direction color schedule, and
most such schedules use approximately the same colors. In the case of the New
York Railways Company, the free transfers are white, surcharges (including a
vertical bar and a hollow star) following the color schedule, the bar and the
star being omitted for east-west. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company in the same
city uses a color schedule of the same sort for its surcharges, including a
diagonal bar on each coupon: north, green; south, red; east-west, blue;
109. Color Based on Issuing Direction. The issuing direction is a frequent basis for the color schedule. There are two-direction and four-direction schedules. The four- direction schedule is for north; south, east, and west, sometimes with separate colors for north or south, and ' for east or west. Two-direction schedules are for "in" and "out," or for "north-south" and "east-west;" or even (as with the regular transfers in Philadelphia) for "east-north" and "west-south." Smith patent forms usually use this basis for color schedules. The New York Railways Company uses the following schedule: north, green; south, red; west, purple; east, orange; east-west (lines issuing the same form in either direction), white. The Third Avenue Railway system in Manhattan and the Bronx boroughs of New York City, uses the same schedule and adds lavender for north-south. This is a typical four-direction color schedule, and most such schedules use approximately the same colors. In the case of the New York Railways Company, the free transfers are white, surcharges (including a vertical bar and a hollow star) following the color schedule, the bar and the star being omitted for east-west. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company in the same city uses a color schedule of the same sort for its surcharges, including a diagonal bar on each coupon: north, green; south, red; east-west, blue; north-south, orange.
110. Combination of Different Kinds of Schedules. It is not usual for a color schedule to be simply based on one item. Usually there are several sorts of bases combined in a color schedule, or, as we have seen, the color schedule may be of one sort in one class of transfers and of a different sort in another. In any event, the color of a transfer usually has its special significance, so that the collector might well consider color schedules as well as other features of transfer forms.
Having described the various features and items of interest about transfer forms, we shall now proceed to consider the process of collection itself.
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