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THE ANIMATE
AND THE INANIMATE
 

WILLIAM JAMES SIDIS

© 1925  Richard G. Badger

   
   PREFACE
I   THE REVERSE UNIVERSE
 II   REVERSIBLE LAWS
III   IRREVERSIBILITY
IV   THE PARADOX
V   THE PROBABILITIES IN THE PROBLEM
VI   SOLUTION OF THE PARADOX
VII   THEORIES OF LIFE
VIII   THE EXTENSION OF THE SECOND LAW
IX   THE RELATION BETWEEN THE TENDENCIES
X   EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC SUBSTANCES
XI   THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE
XII   THE ASTRONOMICAL UNIVERSE
XIII   THE NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS
XIV   THE REVERSIBILITY THEORY OF COSMOGONY
XV   THE PSEUDO-LIVING ORGANISMS
XVI   PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF REVERSAL
XVII   GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE THEORY
XVIII   SOME OBJECTIONS TO THE REVERSIBILITY THEORY

XIX 

 CONCLUSION
   

 

"He is almost as good an astronomer [age 12] as he is a mathematician, and for the past few months has been industriously charting the heavens according to a new system of his own."H. A. Bruce, 1910

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Letter to Julian Huxley, Monday, August 28, 1916.


(Click.)

"I myself have been writing out that theory of mine regarding the second law of thermodynamics." [Age 18]

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"Love of fame is the last thing even learned men can bear to be parted from."Tacitus

 

 

 

THE DARK-STAR GALAXY DIGEST

The universe is infinite and eternal.

Spring 2014

                                                                                 

             

 

 

 

 

Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Astronomers have begun to find the universe's dark galaxies. These were predicted to exist by W. J. Sidis in 1925. A team using the ALMA large array of radio telescopes in Chile has just reported finding 15 more.

Sidis predicted also that the dark galaxies consist of dark stars. It is the solution to the missing matter problem.

The 'missing' matter, or dark matter, called by many astronomers "an unknown substance making up half the universe," actually consists of dark stars. These stars are hot but do not give off light.

As you'll see in the following news reports, no one is investigating this dark-star possibility. Instead astronomers are at present assuming these galaxies:

  • are devoid of stars

  • consist of diffuse dark matter made up of unknown particles

  • are an early phase of galaxy formation

  • are of the early universe

  • are inefficient at forming stars

  • are galaxies whose light is blocked by dark nebulas or cosmic dust.

Sidis would not agree:

"Our previous consideration on the production of radiant energy from the stars indicates that such production of radiant energy is only possible where the second law of thermodynamics is followed, that is, in a positive section of the universe. In a negative section of the universe the reverse process must take place; namely, space is full of radiant energy, presumably produced in the positive section of space, and the stars use this radiant energy to build up a higher level of heat. All radiant energy in that section of space would tend to be absorbed by the stars, which would thus constitute perfectly black bodies; and very little radiant energy would be produced in that section of space, but would mostly come from beyond the boundary surface. ... If we were on the positive side, as seems to be the case, then we could not see beyond such surface, though we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing beyond that surface."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

     

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--NEWS-

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FEB. 23, 2005: An international team of astronomers from the UK, France, Italy and Australia REPORTS a major discovery.

ALMA Telescope Finds 15 Extremely Dark Galaxies --Unidentified Until Now


TOKYO:
June 2, 2013. Scientists using the ALMA telescope have discovered 15 previously unidentified, extremely dark galaxies buried deeply in cosmic dust. ... it is possible that many galaxies in the universe have been overlooked as much of that radiation is largely absorbed by cosmic dust, researchers said.    .pdf         video of facility


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SCIENTISTS IN NASA DARK-MATTER CONTEST

 

The idea behind the challenge is to spur scientists, including those from fields outside astronomy, to come up with new insight into the problems of measuring dark matter and dark energy. Contestants are asked to solve galaxy puzzles involving millions of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A better understanding of the "dark side of the cosmos" may reveal new information about the very fabric and fate of our universe. ... The GREAT3 challenge is designed to improve methods for measuring weak lensing in preparation for future dark matter/dark energy missions. DATA HERE.  NASA JPL, 11/26/ 2013

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HE0450-2958
It has been suggested that this may be a dark galaxy ...
HE0450-2958 is an unusual quasar (a star-like object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy). This one in particular has many large red shifts. HE0450-2958 has no visible host galaxy (a galaxy surrounding the quasar) detected around it. It has been suggested that this may be a dark galaxy in which a quasar has become active. However subsequent observations revealed that a normal host galaxy is probably present.wiki

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HVC 127-41-330

HVC 127-41-330 is a cloud at high speed between the Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy. Astronomer Josh Simon considers this cloud to be a dark galaxy because of the speed of its rotation and its predicted mass.
wiki

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HE0109-3518

Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic News—July 11, 2012
Eleven billion light-years away, strange, dark galaxies nearly devoid of stars have been finally spotted, according to a new study.Predicted in theory but never before observed,
these elusive objects appear to be similar to today's galaxies in that they're rich in gas. However, without any stars to light the gas, the galaxies have remained hidden from view. To find these cosmic ghosts, Cantalupo and colleagues took advantage of one of the brightest light sources in the cosmos—a quasar known as HE0109-3518.

nationalgeographic.com/news/2012

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HE0109-3518

Wow! Dark Galaxies of the Early Universe Spotted- jul122012
For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted.
These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars.
Anne's Astronomy News

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VIRGOHI21 is an extended region of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Virgo cluster discovered in 2005. Analysis of its internal motion indicates that it may contain a large amount of dark matter, as much as a small galaxy. Since VIRGOHI21 apparently contains no stars, this would make it one of the first detected dark galaxies.

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11JUL2012 - For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted. These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars. Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, an international team thinks they have detected these elusive objects by observing them glowing as they are illuminated by a quasar. Because they are essentially devoid of stars, these dark galaxies don’t emit much light, making them very hard to detect.  For years astronomers have been trying to develop new techniques that could confirm the existence of these galaxies. Small absorption dips in the spectra of background sources of light have hinted at their existence. However, this new study marks the first time that such objects have been seen directly.

Univ. of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Published on 11/07/2012

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"This video reveals the size and extent of matter distribution in galaxy cluster MACS J0025. Both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory were needed to create this map of ordinary matter (shown in pink) and dark matter (highlighted in blue)."
[For full-screen click icon at end of playbar, Esc to return.]
 

The above video and the following diagram illustrate light-star galaxies surrounded by dark-star galaxies. And vice versa.

This diagram is intended to represent the "first tremors of the Big Bang," and some sort of proof it happened. But, oddly, it can be re-purposed to illustrate Sidis's model. The blue areas would be light-star galaxies, the red representing dark-star galaxies. And vice versa. He wrote, ' ... the negative sections must be completely surrounded by positive sections and must therefore be finite in all directions. By reversing this (since we have seen that all physical laws are reversible), it follows that any positive section must also be finite in all directions, and be completely surrounded by negative sections."Chap. XII

 

Sidis's model of the universe:

"We thus find the universe to be made up of a number of what we may call bricks, alternately positive and negative, all of approximately the same volume; a sort of three-dimensional checkerboard, the positive spaces counting as white (giving out light), and the negative spaces as black (absorbing light)."Chap. XII

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"We have seen that the structure of the universe, according to the theory of reversibility, is that it consists of irregularly shaped sections, alternately positive and negative. In the positive sections all heated bodies give out radiant energy, according to the second law of thermodynamics. In the negative sections, on the contrary, hot bodies, instead of giving out light or other radiant energy, would tend to absorb it and convert it almost entirely to heat, thus heating themselves up with light received from outside sources."Chap. XIV

 

 

EDITORIAL   

The disciplined scientist assumes the unknown to be similar to the known until observation shows otherwise. So we must first assume that dark galaxies consist of stars, and that those stars are likely to vary in size and age, as in light-star galaxies.

 

Perhaps astronomers will look for dark galaxies in two places right next door:

1) The dark areas with sharp-edged borders within the Southern Milky Way, such as:

       

       
(Click to enlarge.)

2)  The supposed super-massive black hole at the center of our galaxy (Sg A*). This might be a neighboring dark-star galaxy and not a black hole.

—Dan Mahony  (dan at sidis dot net)

  

 

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The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe,
North America
and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile,
is
the largest astronomical project in existence.
 
Insert: Said to be dark matter, this coal-sack may consist of dark stars.