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THE ANIMATE
AND THE INANIMATE
 

WILLIAM JAMES SIDIS

© 1925 Richard G. Badger

 

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   Preface
I  The Reverse Universe
 II  Reversible Laws
III  Irreversibility
IV  The Paradox
V  The Probabilities in the Problem
VI  Solution of the Paradox
VII  Theories of Life
VIII  The Extension of the Second Law
IX  The Relation Between the Tendencies
X  Exothermic and Endothermic Substances
XI  Theories of the Origin of Life
XII  The Astronomical Universe
XIII  The Nebular Hypothesis
XIV  The Reversibility Theory of Cosmogony
XV  The Pseudo-Living Organisms
XVI  Psychological Aspect of Reversal
XVII  General Summary of the Theory
XVIII  Some Objections to the Reversibility Theory

XIX

 Conclusion
  

 Index

   

 

 


 

"He is almost as good an astronomer [age 12] as he is a mathematician, and for the past few months has been industriously charting the heavens according to a new system of his own."H. A. Bruce, 1910

*

Letter to Julian Huxley, Monday, August 28, 1916.


(Click.)

"I myself have been writing out that theory of mine regarding the second law of thermodynamics." [Age 18]

*

"Lust for fame is the last addiction cast
off even by the wise."
Tacitus

 

 
 
 
 

  

 

   May 2015

THE DARKSTAR
GALAXY DIGEST

DARK MATTER CONSISTS OF STARS THAT BUILD UP HEAT AND DO NOT EMIT  LIGHT.

 

 

 

BG: SIDIS 3-D CHECKERBOARD MODEL SHOWING FILAMENT STRUCTURE OF ORDINARY MATTER SURROUNDED BY  DARK MATTER, AND VICE VESA

 

I AN

 

      


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1. Cover Story: LARGEST DARK MATTER MAP MADE SO FAR CLEARLY SHOWS SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD.

NASA, ESO SAY: "NORMAL MATTER IS BUILT INSIDE AN UNDERLYING SCAFFOLDING OF DARK MATTER." 

SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD MODEL: " ... the negative sections must be completely surrounded by positive sections and must therefore be finite in all directions. By reversing this (since we have seen that all physical laws are reversible), it follows that any positive section must also be finite in all directions, and be completely surrounded by negative sections.."

Related News: Cosmic Voids Not Empty; Find Dark Matter with Filament Structure; Detect Axions Emanating from Sun

2. A Brief Outline of the Sidis Model

3. New Evidence Suggests Dark Matter Consists of Hot Dark Stars

4. Related Data: Darkstar Galaxy Maximum and Minimum Heat Distribution

  hmm ...

 

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(Click/tap images for source.)

SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD? DARK MATTER (BLUE) SURROUNDING NORMAL MATTER (GRAY) AND VICE VERSA "... largest sample of the distribution of dark matter ever obtained. It demonstrates how normal matter - including stars, galaxies and gas - is built inside an underlying scaffolding of dark matter."

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2007/01/

Comparison_of_normal_matter_and_dark_matter_s_large_scale_structure

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SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD? (In this inverted-color version of the original map, red is dark matter, blue is normal matter.) "The first Dark Energy Survey map to trace the dark matter distribution across a large area of sky. The colors indicate projected mass density. (Image: Dark Energy Survey) The new data show large filaments of dark matter where visible galaxies and galaxy clusters lie and cosmic voids where very few galaxies reside."

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/presspass/press_releases/2013/DES-20130903.html

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SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD? DARK MATTER (BLUE) SURROUNDING NORMAL MATTER (RED) AND VICE VERSAThis image is intended to represent the "first tremors of the Big Bang," but it illustrates the Sidis Model. In this and many of the images in MORE DATA, the blue areas represent the negative, dark-matter sections which surround the positive, ordinary-matter sections (red). In this particular diagram we see each type surrounding the other as in the Sidis Irregular 3-D Checkerboard model.

 http://bicepkeck.org/visuals.html

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SIDIS IRREGULAR 3-D CHECKERBOARD? NEGATIVE SECTIONS (DARK MATTER, BLUE) SURROUNDING POSITIVE SECTIONS (NORMAL MATTER, RED) AND VICE VERSA"Starlight from galaxies ... is colored orange. The green-tinted regions show hot gas ... blue-colored areas pinpoint the ... dark matter. ... blend of blue and green in the center of the image reveals that a clump of dark matter resides near most of the hot gas ..."

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/dark-matter-core_prt.htm

 

SEE OUTLINE AND ANIMATIONS BELOW OF THE

SIDIS MODEL OF THE STELLAR UNIVERSE

 


-RELATED NEWS-

The closest superclusters

VOIDS AND WALLS (from Atlas of the Universe))

COSMIC VOIDS NOT EMPTY—CONSIST OF DARK MATTER AND DIM STRUCTURES16APR2014"Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have measured the "weight" of these cosmic voids and filaments for the first time, showing the former are not as empty as they look. ... Dark matter and other dim structures permeate all the way to the center of the voids."

 http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/cosmologists-penn-weigh-cosmic-filaments-and-voids

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KECK OBSERVATORY TEAM REPORTS DISCOVERY OF DARK MATTER WITH FILAMENT STRUCTURE—MAY BE EVIDENCE THAT DARK MATTER CONSISTS OF DARK STARS—15OCT2012—" ... a team of astronomers has uncovered the presence of a filament of dark matter extending from the core of the cluster. The location of the dark matter is revealed in a map of the mass in the cluster and surrounding region, shown here in blue. The filament visibly extends out and to the left of the cluster core.

 

"Using additional observations from ground-based telescopes, the team was able to map the filament’s structure in three dimensions, the first time this has ever been done. The filament was discovered to extend back from the cluster core, meaning we are looking along it. ... The significant amount of dark matter in this cluster, shown in light blue, may be also similar to the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall."

 http://www.keckobservatory.org/recent/entry/astronomers_map_dark_matter_filament

 

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SUN EMITTING AXIONS? MAY BE MORE EVIDENCE THAT DARK MATTER CONSISTS OF DARK STARS—020OCT2014—"It appears plausible that axions—dark matter particle candidates—are indeed produced in the core of the Sun."

http://www.ras.org.uk/news-and-press/2524-curious-signal-hints-at-dark-matter

 

 


OUTLINE OF THE SIDIS MODEL

 

STARS ARE DISTRIBUTED IN AN IRREGULAR THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHECKERBOARD OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SECTIONS

"We thus find the universe to be made up of a number of what we may call bricks, alternately positive and negative, all of approximately the same volume; a sort of three-dimensional checkerboard, the positive spaces counting as white (giving out light), and the negative spaces as black (absorbing light)."

The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII


The shapes of the "brick" sections are made irregular by harmonics:

The irregularity may thus be of two varieties: either the medium pair of faces is caved in, and the largest and smallest bulged out somewhat less; or the largest and smallest pairs of faces are caved in slightly, and the medium pair of faces extremely bulged out."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII 


A RIGOROUS EXAMINATION OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS LED TO THE SIDIS COSMOLOGICAL MODEL.

Kindle   PageFlip.pdf  .pdf

 


b
3-D CHECKERBOARD? DARK MATTER (BLUE) SURROUNDING NPRMAL MATTER (RED) AND VICE VERSA. This visualization from BICEP2 is intended to represent the "first tremors of the Big Bang," but instead it illustrates well the Sidis Model. The blue areas represent the negative dark-matter sections, the red the positive ordinary-matter sections, each type surrounding the other as Sidis predicted.


 

 

SIDIS RE THE STARS
 

They exist in an eternal darkstar-lightstar cycle.
 

They are distributed throughout the universe in an irregular three-dimensional checkerboard of ordinary-matter spaces where they follow the second law of thermodynamics and expend light and heat, and dark-matter spaces where they reverse the second law of thermodynamics and build up heat and do not emit light.

Dark matter consists of hot dark stars still in their galaxies and filaments.

Dark matter makes up 50% of the infinite and eternal universe.

Sidis's theory is a consequence of the laws of physics, e.g., the first law of thermodynamics (energy is neither created nor destroyed).

 

ANIMATIONS OF SIDIS IRREGULAR THREE DIMENSIONAL CHECKERBOARD MODEL OF UNIVERSE

POSITIVE SECTIONS (NORMAL MATTER) AND NEGATIVE SECTIONS (DARK MATTER)

FIRST ANIM. DEPICTS FILAMENT STRUCTURE OF NORMAL MATTER

 

SECOND DEPICTS FILAMENT STRUCTURE OF DARK MATTER

 

(Repurposed Millennium Simulation Project Images)
http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/galform/virgo/millennium/


Sidis:

 " ... the negative sections must be completely surrounded by positive sections and must therefore be finite in all directions. By reversing this (since we have seen that all physical laws are reversible), it follows that any positive section must also be finite in all directions, and be completely surrounded by negative sections.."

The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

3-D CHECKERBOARD? DARK MATTER (BLUE) SURROUNDING NORMAL MATTER (GRAY) AND VICE VERSA.

 


DARK MATTER CONSISTS OF HOT DARK STARS STILL IN THEIR GALAXIES AND FILAMENTS

     Sidis: "Our previous consideration on the production of radiant energy from the stars indicates that such production of radiant energy is only possible where the second law of thermodynamics is followed, that is, in a positive section of the universe. In a negative section of the universe the reverse process must take place; namely, space is full of radiant energy, presumably produced in the positive section of space, and the stars use this radiant energy to build up a higher level of heat. All radiant energy in that section of space would tend to be absorbed by the stars, which would thus constitute perfectly black bodies; and very little radiant energy would be produced in that section of space, but would mostly come from beyond the boundary surface. ... If we were on the positive side, as seems to be the case, then we could not see beyond such surface, though we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing beyond that surface."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

 


LIGHTSTAR DARKSTAR

Let's 'oom into to a dark-matter section
A world that's hot and full of dark stars
Still in their galaxies and filaments
Regaining heat and not shining

They've shone brilliantly in the past
And will yet again
Alternating for eternity their
Lightstar and darkstar epochs

Will Rike

 

THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHECKERBOARD? Sky in our black and white version of the above Hubble Telescope composite photo shows normal matter (WHITE) surrounding dark matter (GRAY).

 

OPTICAL IMAGE OF NORMAL MATTER SURROUNDING DARK MATTER:

"The center of the Boötes void ... ."keithwaynebrown.com

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"DARK MATTER 'JACKET' SURROUNDS GALAXY— ... appears to be encased in a shell of dark matter, ... it appears the object is massive enough to be a galaxy itself."

 http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13179-giant-gas-cloud-to-crash-into-our-galaxy.html

 


-MORE DATA-

 

RED WHITE AND BLUE IMAGES SHOWING DARK MATTER (BLUE) AS HOT

HOT DARK MATTER?"Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are colored red, showing gas with temperatures of millions of degrees. In blue is a map showing the total mass concentration (mostly dark matter) ... ."

 http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2011/a2744/

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HOT DARK MATTER?—" ... galaxies in the cluster make up less than 5 percent of its mass. The gas (around 20 percent) is so hot that it shines only in X-rays (colored red in this image). The distribution of invisible dark matter (making up around 75 percent of the cluster’s mass) is colored here in blue." 

 http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/pandora-cluster.html

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HOT DARK MATTER?—"In this composite image, the hot gas observed with Chandra is colored red, and the galaxies in the optical image from Hubble appear as mostly white and yellow. The location of the majority of the matter in the cluster (dominated by dark matter) is colored blue. When the red and the blue regions overlap, the result is purple as seen in the image."

  http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2012/musketball/

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HOT DARK MATTER?—"... hot gas as detected by Chandra is colored red ... starlight from the individual galaxies (yellow and orange) ... most of the matter in the cluster (blue) is dominated by dark matter." http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/a520/

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HOT DARK MATTER?—"Hot gas is shown in an image from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and galaxies are shown in an optical image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The hot gas is color-coded to show temperature, where the coolest gas is reddish purple, the hottest gas is blue, and the temperatures in between are purple." 

 http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2009/17/image/a/

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"... ordinary matter (shown in pink) and dark matter (highlighted in blue)."

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/macs/

 

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" ... X-rays (pink) combined with a dark matter map (blue, derived from weak lensing), along with the optical image ..." http://astronomy.fas.harvard.edu/high-energy-astrophysics

 

(Top) "Artist’s impression of the Milky Way and its dark matter halo (shown in blue, but in reality invisible). Credit: ESO/L. Calçada" http://phys.org/news/2014-10-dark-thought-scientists.html#jCp

 

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RING OF DARK MATTER IN 3-D CHECKERBOARD PATTERN AROUND GALAXY CLUSTER"Dark matter in diffuse blue." http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070516.html

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" ... the otherwise invisible dark matter in blue, and the positions of the cluster galaxies in yellow."  http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030814.html

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"Clusters of galaxies like this one, MCS J0416.1-2403 located in the constellation of Eridanus, have long been theorized to be bound by cosmological dark matter."

http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucedorminey/2014/12/20/new-doubt-about-dark-matter/

 


- -RELATED DATA-

 

IMAGES OF HEAT MAXIMA AND MINIMA IN A DARK GALAXY

 

HOT DARK MATTER? MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS OF ENERGY OF A DARK STAR GALAXY"The simulated distribution of dark matter in a Milky Way-like galaxy for standard, non-interacting dark matter ... The colours represent the density of dark matter, with red indicating high-density and blue indicating low-density."

http://www.ras.org.uk/news-and-press/2503-interactive-dark-matter-could-explain-milky-way-s-missing-satellite-galaxies

 

HOT DARK MATTER? MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS OF ENERGY OF A DARK GALAXY"Brightness (blue-to-violet-to-red-to-yellow) corresponds to increasing concentration of dark matter. The bright central region corresponds roughly to the Milky Way’s luminous matter of gas and stars, and the bright clumps indicate dark-matter satellites orbiting our Milky Way galaxy which are known as 'substructure'."

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2014/09/cosmic-particles-detected-that-may-come-from-a-new-unknown-source-mit-dark-matter-research-team.html

HOT DARK MATTER? MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS OF ENERGY OF A DARK GALAXY"Diffuse, hot gas with a temperature of nearly 50 million degrees permeates the space between the galaxies. The gas emits X-rays, seen as blue in the image taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory in November 2003. The X-ray portion of the image shows enormous holes or cavities in the gas, each roughly 640,000 light-years in diameter — nearly seven times the diameter of the Milky Way. The cavities are filled with charged particles gyrating around magnetic field lines and emitting radio waves shown in the red portion of image taken with the Very Large Array telescope in New Mexico in October 2004."

http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2006/51/image/a/

 

HOT DARK MATTER? MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS OF ENERGY OF A DARK GALAXY"Is this just an unusual cluster, or could it be a sign of the existence of 'hot' dark matter? ... Galaxies are represented as peaks, and the central mountain is the dark matter in between the galaxies. ... a much smoother and less centrally concentrated distribution of dark matter in one cluster."

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/62854/394122a0.pdf?sequence=1

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"This figure shows the number density (red squares) for each brightness of the galaxies derived from observation in this study. Compared to past observation results (blue squares), galaxies approximately ten times as dark were detected. The curve shows the prediction by the theories of galaxy formation."

 http://www.almaobservatory.org/en/visuals/images/astronomy/?g2_itemId=4932


 

 

 

"Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist."Stephen Hawking ((2010)

*

"The assumption of spontaneous generation is rather contrary to observed facts."W. J. Sidis (1925)

 

—compiled by Dan Mahony (dan at sidis dot net)

 


 

 

THERE is a solitude of space,
A solitude of sea,
A solitude of death, but these
Society shall be,
Compared with that profounder site,
That polar privacy,
A Soul admitted to Itself:
Finite Infinity.

Dickinson

 


-- NEWS ARCHIVE -


 

ALMA Telescope Finds 15 Extremely Dark Galaxies --Unidentified Until Now


TOKYO: June 2, 2013. Scientists using the ALMA telescope have discovered 15 previously unidentified, extremely dark galaxies buried deeply in cosmic dust. ... it is possible that many galaxies in the universe have been overlooked as much of that radiation is largely absorbed by cosmic dust, researchers said. .pdf video of facility


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SCIENTISTS IN NASA DARK-MATTER CONTEST

 

The idea behind the challenge is to spur scientists, including those from fields outside astronomy, to come up with new insight into the problems of measuring dark matter and dark energy. Contestants are asked to solve galaxy puzzles involving millions of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A better understanding of the "dark side of the cosmos" may reveal new information about the very fabric and fate of our universe. ... The GREAT3 challenge is designed to improve methods for measuring weak lensing in preparation for future dark matter/dark energy missions. DATA HERE. NASA JPL, 11/26/ 2013

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HE0450-2958
.
HE0450-2958 is an unusual quasar (a star-like object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy). This one in particular has many large red shifts. HE0450-2958 has no visible host galaxy (a galaxy surrounding the quasar) detected around it. It has been suggested that this may be a dark galaxy in which a quasar has become active. However subsequent observations revealed that a normal host galaxy is probably present.wiki

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HVC 127-41-330

HVC 127-41-330 is a cloud at high speed between the Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy. Astronomer Josh Simon considers this cloud to be a dark galaxy because of the speed of its rotation and its predicted mass.wiki

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HE0109-3518

Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic News—July 11, 2012
Eleven billion light-years away, strange, dark galaxies nearly devoid of stars have been finally spotted, according to a new study.Predicted in theory but never before observed,
these elusive objects appear to be similar to today's galaxies in that they're rich in gas. However, without any stars to light the gas, the galaxies have remained hidden from view. To find these cosmic ghosts, Cantalupo and colleagues took advantage of one of the brightest light sources in the cosmos—a quasar known as HE0109-3518. nationalgeographic.com/news/2012

---------------------

HE0109-3518

Wow! Dark Galaxies of the Early Universe Spotted- jul122012
For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted.
These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars.—Anne's Astronomy News

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VIRGOHI21 is an extended region of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Virgo cluster discovered in 2005. Analysis of its internal motion indicates that it may contain a large amount of dark matter, as much as a small galaxy. Since VIRGOHI21 apparently contains no stars, this would make it one of the first detected dark galaxies.

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11JUL2012 - For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted. These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars. Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, an international team thinks they have detected these elusive objects by observing them glowing as they are illuminated by a quasar. Because they are essentially devoid of stars, these dark galaxies don’t emit much light, making them very hard to detect. For years astronomers have been trying to develop new techniques that could confirm the existence of these galaxies. Small absorption dips in the spectra of background sources of light have hinted at their existence. However, this new study marks the first time that such objects have been seen directly. Univ. of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Published on 11/07/2012

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FEB. 23, 2005—An international team of astronomers from the UK, France, Italy and Australia REPORTS first observation of a dark galaxy

 

 

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The New York Times, March 15, 2007


The eccentric genius William James Sidis, who lived in the early 20th century and was estimated by psychologists to possess the highest IQ of anyone known to history (300 – 350), wrote a paper called “The Animate and the Inanimate” in which he predicted — derived logically would be more like it, using thermodynamic principles — that the universe would consist of large regions of dark matter, at least 50% of the whole by his estimate.
 

It’s not an easy paper to understand in its own right. And the fact that he was an auto-didact* for the most part (although graduating from Harvard at a very young age) who gives no mention to quantum theory or relativity may cause many knee-jerk rejections by the ‘learned.’ But I think it bears careful scrutiny nonetheless. It can be found at the William James Sidis Archives on the net, at:


http://sidis.net/ANIMContents.htm

Keith Kaplon

________

*A self-taught person. But he studied a good amount of astronomy, physics and philosophy at Harvard and began work on the book after graduation transcript.Dan Mahony
 

 

HOT DARK MATTER #4"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An army of scientists is advancing on dark matter. A major part is being played by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international
partnership of
Europe, North America
and
East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is the largest astronomical project in existence.