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1925 Richard G. Badger

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"He is almost as good an astronomer [age 12] as he is a mathematician, and for the past few months has been industriously charting the heavens according to a new system of his own."H. A. Bruce, 1910


Letter to Julian Huxley, Monday, August 28, 1916.


"I myself have been writing out that theory of mine regarding the second law of thermodynamics." [Age 18]



"Fame is the last addiction cast off even by the wise."Tacitus















Listen to MBOX.thought.radio                                                 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)          

(Click images.)

COSMIC VOIDS NOT EMPTY—CONSIST OF "DARK MATTER AND DIM STRUCTURES"April 16, 2014. "Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have measured the "weight" of these cosmic voids and filaments for the first time, showing the former are not as empty as they look. ... Dark matter and other dim structures permeate all the way to the center of the voids."



VOIDS AND WALLS (from Atlas of the Universe))

The closest superclusters


"Between the filaments are cosmic voids (dark regions) which occupy more than a half of the volume of our Universe."    http://sydney.edu.au/news/physics/1737.html?newsstoryid=10821


"The center of the Botes void ... ."keithwaynebrown.com



"We thus see that the universe is infinite, but divided into alternately positive and negative spaces of approximately equal volume, and that the apparent stellar universe is merely the positive section in which we are. The Galaxy consists merely of the distant sides of the irregular "brick" that constitutes this positive section."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII


The shapes of the sections are being altered by harmonics: " ... either the medium pair of faces is caved in, and the largest and smallest bulged out somewhat less; or the largest and smallest pairs of faces are caved in slightly, and the medium pair of faces extremely bulged out."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII









" ... the negative sections must be completely surrounded by positive sections and must therefore be finite in all directions. By reversing this (since we have seen that all physical laws are reversible), it follows that any positive section must also be finite in all directions, and be completely surrounded by negative sections. ... We thus find the universe to be ... a sort of three-dimensional checkerboard, the positive spaces counting as white (giving out light), and the negative spaces as black (absorbing light)."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII


The following diagram is intended to represent the "first tremors of the Big Bang," but it can be re-purposed to illustrate the Sidis Model. In the images which follow, the blue areas represent the negative dark-matter sections, the red the positive ordinary-matter sections. In this particular diagram we see each type surrounding the other.




"Brightness (blue-to-violet-to-red-to-yellow) corresponds to increasing concentration of dark matter. The bright central region corresponds roughly to the Milky Way’s luminous matter of gas and stars, and the bright clumps indicate dark-matter satellites orbiting our Milky Way galaxy which are known as 'substructure'."



"... ordinary matter (shown in pink) and dark matter (highlighted in blue)."http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/macs/


"Starlight from galaxies ... is colored orange. The green-tinted regions show hot gas ... blue-colored areas pinpoint the ... dark matter. ... blend of blue and green in the center of the image reveals that a clump of dark matter resides near most of the hot gas ..."



"Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are colored red, showing gas with temperatures of millions of degrees. In blue is a map showing the total mass concentration (mostly dark matter) ... ."   http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2011/a2744/


" ... the hot gas observed with Chandra is colored red, and the galaxies in the optical image from Hubble appear as mostly white and yellow. The location of the majority of the matter in the cluster (dominated by dark matter) is colored blue. When the red and the blue regions overlap, the result is purple as seen in the image."



" ... hot gas as detected by Chandra is colored red ... starlight from the individual galaxies (yellow and orange) ... most of the matter in the cluster (blue) is dominated by dark matter."    http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/a520/


" ... X-rays (pink) combined with a dark matter map (blue, derived from weak lensing), along with the optical image ..."  http://astronomy.fas.harvard.edu/high-energy-astrophysics



"Dark matter in diffuse blue." http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070516.html


"While visible light — shown here mainly in blue ... ALMA’s view shows us something that cannot be seen at those wavelengths: ... shown here in red, pink and yellow ... "    http://www.almaobservatory.org/en/visuals/images/?g2_itemId=3441


DARK MATTER "JACKET" SURROUNDS GALAXY—" ... appears to be encased in a shell of dark matter, ... it appears the object is massive enough to be a galaxy itself."



"Is this just an unusual cluster, or could it be a sign of the existence of 'hot' dark matter? ... Galaxies are represented as peaks, and the central mountain is the dark matter in between the galaxies. ... a much smoother and less centrally concentrated distribution of dark matter in one cluster."



"This figure shows the number density (red squares) for each brightness of the galaxies derived from observation in this study. Compared to past observation results (blue squares), galaxies approximately ten times as dark were detected. The curve shows the prediction by the theories of galaxy formation."


    1             2    3      4    5       6       7     8 
Void Name       Equatorial   Supergal.  Redshift Dist. Diam.
                Coordinates Coordinates    z      Mly   Mly
                 RA   Dec     L   B
Local Void      18.0  -10    178  +61    0.0050    70   140
Delphinus       20.0  +20    314  +74    0.0083   115   140
Eridanus         1.0    0    297   -1    0.0083   115   185
Corvus          12.0  -15    128  -17    0.0100   140   115
Gemini           6.0  +40     14  -33    0.0100   140   115
Virgo           13.5  +10    109  +11    0.0100   140   115
Cygnus          20.5  +25    323  +66    0.0117   165   115
Leo             10.5  +30     75  -21    0.0117   165   140
Taurus           3.5  +20    330  -28    0.0133   185   185
Aquila          22.0    0    282  +42    0.0150   210   140
Microscopium    18.0  -20    185  +52    0.0150   210   160
Canis Major      6.5  -20    260  -83    0.0167   235   230
Coma Berenices  13.5  +15    104  +12    0.0167   235   140
Hydra           12.0  -30    143  -19    0.0167   235   140
Corona Borealis 17.0  +35     74  +58    0.0173   240   185
Pegasus         22.0  +15    302  +45    0.0183   255   140
Sculptor         0.5  -35    261   -4    0.0183   255   275
Ursa Minor      19.0  +85     26  +21    0.0183   255   230
Ursa Major       9.0  +50     47  -19    0.0200   280   140
Columba          4.0  -30    269  -48    0.0217   305   230
Pisces           1.0  +15    311   +3    0.0233   325   140
Apus            20.0  -75    211   -1    0.0250   350   230
Fornax           2.0  -25    275  -21    0.0267   375   230
Capricornus     19.0  -35    208  +39    0.0284   395   230




Astronomers are fast finding the dark galaxies predicted to exist by W. J. Sidis in 1925. A team using the ALMA large array of radio telescopes in Chile has just reported finding 15 more.

Sidis said "we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing" in the dark-matter regions. These stars are hot but do not give off light.

No one is investigating this dark-star possibility yet. Astronomers are at present assuming these galaxies:

  • are devoid of stars

  • consist of diffuse dark matter made up of unknown particles

  • are an early phase of galaxy formation

  • are of the early universe

  • are inefficient at forming stars

  • are galaxies whose light is blocked by dark nebulas or cosmic dust.

Sidis would not agree:

"Our previous consideration on the production of radiant energy from the stars indicates that such production of radiant energy is only possible where the second law of thermodynamics is followed, that is, in a positive section of the universe. In a negative section of the universe the reverse process must take place; namely, space is full of radiant energy, presumably produced in the positive section of space, and the stars use this radiant energy to build up a higher level of heat. All radiant energy in that section of space would tend to be absorbed by the stars, which would thus constitute perfectly black bodies; and very little radiant energy would be produced in that section of space, but would mostly come from beyond the boundary surface. ... If we were on the positive side, as seems to be the case, then we could not see beyond such surface, though we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing beyond that surface."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII



Until the 1500s, the Ptolemaic model was the official cosmological model. It assumed Earth was the center of the universe. So too with the present official geocentric model. Hubble's "Law" calculates its supposed "age" and "size" of the universe from Earth. Galaxies are "observed" receding from Earth.


"Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that: (1) objects observed in deep space ... are found to have a Doppler shift interpretable as relative velocity away from the Earth; and (2) that this Doppler-shift-measured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away. This is normally interpreted as a direct, physical observation of the expansion of the spatial volume of the observable universe."―Wiki

The implication here is that the paths of the galaxies can all be traced back to a common point of origin. But that is not the case. The red shifts are being produced by galaxies moving in a thousand different directions. They have no common point of origin because there was no Big Bang, no beginning to the eternal universe.



"Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.”—Stephen Hawking wiki


THERE is a solitude of space,
A solitude of sea,
A solitude of death, but these
Society shall be,
Compared with that profounder site,
That polar privacy,

A Soul admitted to Itself:
Finite Infinity.




Let's take a spaceflight

    into to a region of dark matter

    a huge volume of dark stars

    still in their galaxies and clusters

    but not giving off light


They have shone brilliantly

    in the distant past

    and will yet again

    alternating for eternity their

    light-star and dark-star epochs


It is very hot where we are

    heat having been building up

    for millions of years

    in reversal of the second law


To observers of the infrared

with their wonderful orbiting labs

this dark section appears as

just one giant heat source


They'll find a finer focus

so as to see as Sidis says

that dark galaxies are full of

stars in their heat-building phase


We’re looking for a perch

    at just the right height above

    and just the right distance from

    a beautiful dark-star galaxy


Other observers find in this section

a huge amount of gravity

they think it is due

to a colossal black hole


But they will discover

they are detecting

the gravitation

of billions of dark stars


The orbiters and all of ALMA

    will soon see more clearly

    dark-star galaxies

    and other dim structures


They'll find that old principle

    of science still holds true:

    "At first assume the unknown

    to be like the known."


And we having perched ourselves

    just right so we can see

    a beautiful dark galaxy

    full of hot stars and planets


We are home now

    waiting for the news

    that the Sidis Model has been verified.

    It may take a while though.


Will Rike, 2014




Parting Thoughts

  • Physicists are not cosmologists by default. Expertise in the physics of some particular aspect of the universe doesn't automatically transfer to expertise in cosmology which is a branch of philosophy and thus requires a different kind of thinking. A course in the philosophy of science might be a good place for them to start.

  • There is no "echo" of the Bang. It's just more of the infinite universe.

  • The unknown usually turns out to be a lot like the known.

—Compiled by Dan Mahony  (dan at sidis dot net)



ALMA Telescope Finds 15 Extremely Dark Galaxies --Unidentified Until Now

TOKYO: June 2, 2013. Scientists using the ALMA telescope have discovered 15 previously unidentified, extremely dark galaxies buried deeply in cosmic dust. ... it is possible that many galaxies in the universe have been overlooked as much of that radiation is largely absorbed by cosmic dust, researchers said.   .pdf         video of facility




The idea behind the challenge is to spur scientists, including those from fields outside astronomy, to come up with new insight into the problems of measuring dark matter and dark energy. Contestants are asked to solve galaxy puzzles involving millions of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A better understanding of the "dark side of the cosmos" may reveal new information about the very fabric and fate of our universe. ... The GREAT3 challenge is designed to improve methods for measuring weak lensing in preparation for future dark matter/dark energy missions. DATA HERE.  NASA JPL, 11/26/ 2013


HE0450-2958 is an unusual quasar (a star-like object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy). This one in particular has many large red shifts. HE0450-2958 has no visible host galaxy (a galaxy surrounding the quasar) detected around it. It has been suggested that this may be a dark galaxy in which a quasar has become active. However subsequent observations revealed that a normal host galaxy is probably present.wiki


HVC 127-41-330

HVC 127-41-330 is a cloud at high speed between the Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy. Astronomer Josh Simon considers this cloud to be a dark galaxy because of the speed of its rotation and its predicted mass.



Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic News—July 11, 2012
Eleven billion light-years away, strange, dark galaxies nearly devoid of stars have been finally spotted, according to a new study.Predicted in theory but never before observed,
these elusive objects appear to be similar to today's galaxies in that they're rich in gas. However, without any stars to light the gas, the galaxies have remained hidden from view. To find these cosmic ghosts, Cantalupo and colleagues took advantage of one of the brightest light sources in the cosmos—a quasar known as HE0109-3518.   nationalgeographic.com/news/2012



Wow! Dark Galaxies of the Early Universe Spotted- jul122012
For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted.
These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars.
Anne's Astronomy News


VIRGOHI21 is an extended region of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Virgo cluster discovered in 2005. Analysis of its internal motion indicates that it may contain a large amount of dark matter, as much as a small galaxy. Since VIRGOHI21 apparently contains no stars, this would make it one of the first detected dark galaxies.


11JUL2012 - For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted. These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars. Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, an international team thinks they have detected these elusive objects by observing them glowing as they are illuminated by a quasar. Because they are essentially devoid of stars, these dark galaxies don’t emit much light, making them very hard to detect. For years astronomers have been trying to develop new techniques that could confirm the existence of these galaxies. Small absorption dips in the spectra of background sources of light have hinted at their existence. However, this new study marks the first time that such objects have been seen directly.  Univ. of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Published on 11/07/2012


FEB. 23, 2005—An international team of astronomers from the UK, France, Italy and Australia REPORTS a major discovery


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(Background image: Scroll to bottom.)



























The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe,
North America
and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile,
the largest astronomical project in existence.

 Insert: This coal-sack may consist of dark stars.
The ALMA radio telescopes "see" much going on there.