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THE ANIMATE
AND THE INANIMATE
 

WILLIAM JAMES SIDIS

© 1925 Richard G. Badger

 

 (Click to read.)

   PREFACE
I  THE REVERSE UNIVERSE
 II  REVERSIBLE LAWS
III  IRREVERSIBILITY
IV  THE PARADOX
V  THE PROBABILITIES IN THE PROBLEM
VI  SOLUTION OF THE PARADOX
VII  THEORIES OF LIFE
VIII  THE EXTENSION OF THE SECOND LAW
IX  THE RELATION BETWEEN THE TENDENCIES
X  EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC SUBSTANCES
XI  THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE
XII  THE ASTRONOMICAL UNIVERSE
XIII  THE NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS
XIV  THE REVERSIBILITY THEORY OF COSMOGONY
XV  THE PSEUDO-LIVING ORGANISMS
XVI  PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF REVERSAL
XVII  GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE THEORY
XVIII  SOME OBJECTIONS TO THE REVERSIBILITY THEORY

XIX

 CONCLUSION
INDEX  

 

"He is almost as good an astronomer [age 12] as he is a mathematician, and for the past few months has been industriously charting the heavens according to a new system of his own."H. A. Bruce, 1910

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Letter to Julian Huxley, Monday, August 28, 1916.


(Click.)

"I myself have been writing out that theory of mine regarding the second law of thermodynamics." [Age 18]

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"Fame is the last addiction cast off even by the wise."Tacitus

 

 

 


 

 

 

THE DARK STAR GALAXY DIGEST

           

            

 

 

 

 

 Listen to MBOX.audio.station                         Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 


AN ARMY OF SCIENTISTS WITH AN AMAZING ARRAY OF INSTRUMENTS IS ADVANCING ON DARK MATTER FROM BELOW GROUND, FROM THE SOUTH POLE, AND FROM GROUND LEVEL, MOUNTAIN TOPS AND SPACE—

EARLY RECON POINTS TO THE SIDIS MODEL


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THIS ISSUE

1. Following breaking news items below we we introduce the Sidis Cosmological Model, and then provide a dozen visualizations and simulations from CHANDRA, ALMA, HUBBLESCOPE and others, showing dark matter surrounding ordinary matter, as predicted by the Sidis model.

2. There follows an op-ed section in which we offer some thoughts, poetry, and quotations; and finally a news archive.

3.  Scroll to bottom to see background of this page, a computer re-visualization of the Millennium Project's simulation of the filaments and voids.

Breaking:

4. Dark-matter filamentmay be evidence that dark matter consists of dark stars still organized as they are in their ordinary-matter shining phase.

5. Axions
emanating from the sun—may be further evidence that stars are the matter of dark matter.

6. Cosmic voids not empty. They contain dark matter and dim structures. More evidence that dark matter consists of dark stars.

 


(Click images.)

 

FIND DARK MATTER WITH SAME FILAMENT STRUCTURE AS ORDINARY MATTER15OCT2012" ... a team of astronomers has uncovered the presence of a filament of dark matter extending from the core of the cluster. The location of the dark matter is revealed in a map of the mass in the cluster and surrounding region, shown here in blue. The filament visibly extends out and to the left of the cluster core. Using additional observations from ground-based telescopes, the team was able to map the filament’s structure in three dimensions, the first time this has ever been done. The filament was discovered to extend back from the cluster core, meaning we are looking along it."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hercules%E2%80%93Corona_Borealis_Great_Wall#mediaviewer/

File:Hubble_image_of_MACS_J0717_with_mass_overlay.jpg

 

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SUN EMITTING AXIONS?—MAY BE FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT STARS ARE THE MATTER OF DARK MATTER—20OCT2014—"It appears plausible that axions—dark matter particle candidates—are indeed produced in the core of the Sun."

http://www.techtimes.com/articles/18205/20141019/strange-signal-in-x-ray-spectrum-from-sun-hints-at-elusive-dark-matter.htm

 

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The closest superclusters

VOIDS AND WALLS (from Atlas of the Universe))

COSMIC VOIDS NOT EMPTY—CONSIST OF DARK MATTER AND DIM STRUCTURES16APR2014"Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have measured the "weight" of these cosmic voids and filaments for the first time, showing the former are not as empty as they look. ... Dark matter and other dim structures permeate all the way to the center of the voids."

 http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/cosmologists-penn-weigh-cosmic-filaments-and-voids

 

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     Millennium Project Simulation of Filaments and Voids

http://sydney.edu.au/news/physics/1737.html?newsstoryid=10821

"Between the filaments are cosmic voids (dark regions) ... " 

Re-visualization of Millennium Project Filaments-and-Voids Simulation

 


 

THE SIDIS COSMOLOGICAL MODEL

 

"We have seen that the structure of the universe, according to the theory of reversibility, is that it consists of irregularly shaped sections, alternately positive and negative. In the positive sections all heated bodies give out radiant energy, according to the second law of thermodynamics. In the negative sections, on the contrary, hot bodies, instead of giving out light or other radiant energy, would tend to absorb it and convert it almost entirely into heat, thus heating themselves up with light received from outside sources. This is in strict accord with the reversal of the second law of thermodynamics."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XIV

 

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The shapes of the parallelopiped sections are altered by harmonics:

" ... either the medium pair of faces is caved in, and the largest and smallest bulged out somewhat less; or the largest and smallest pairs of faces are caved in slightly, and the medium pair of faces extremely bulged out."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

 

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" ... the negative sections must be completely surrounded by positive sections and must therefore be finite in all directions. By reversing this (since we have seen that all physical laws are reversible), it follows that any positive section must also be finite in all directions, and be completely surrounded by negative sections. ... We thus find the universe to be ... a sort of three-dimensional checkerboard, the positive spaces counting as white (giving out light), and the negative spaces as black (absorbing light)."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

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This diagram  from BICEP2 is intended to represent the "first tremors of the Big Bang," but it illustrates well the Sidis Model. The blue areas represent the negative dark-matter sections, the red the positive ordinary-matter sections. And we see each type surrounding the other as Sidis predicted.

A dozen more visualizations of dark matter (blue) and ordinary matter (red) follow.
 



DARK STARS ARE THE MATTER OF DARK MATTER

Sidis says:

"Our previous consideration on the production of radiant energy from the stars indicates that such production of radiant energy is only possible where the second law of thermodynamics is followed, that is, in a positive section of the universe. In a negative section of the universe the reverse process must take place; namely, space is full of radiant energy, presumably produced in the positive section of space, and the stars use this radiant energy to build up a higher level of heat. All radiant energy in that section of space would tend to be absorbed by the stars, which would thus constitute perfectly black bodies; and very little radiant energy would be produced in that section of space, but would mostly come from beyond the boundary surface. ... If we were on the positive side, as seems to be the case, then we could not see beyond such surface, though we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing beyond that surface."—The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

 

 

 

VISUALIZATIONS FROM THE CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY SATELLITE AND OTHERS SHOWING DARK MATTER SURROUNDING ORDINARY MATTER AS PREDICTED BY THE SIDIS THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHECKERBOARD MODEL

 

"... ordinary matter (shown in pink) and dark matter (highlighted in blue)."http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/macs/

 

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"Starlight from galaxies ... is colored orange. The green-tinted regions show hot gas ... blue-colored areas pinpoint the ... dark matter. ... blend of blue and green in the center of the image reveals that a clump of dark matter resides near most of the hot gas ..."

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/dark-matter-core_prt.htm

 

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"Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are colored red, showing gas with temperatures of millions of degrees. In blue is a map showing the total mass concentration (mostly dark matter) ... ." http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2011/a2744/

 

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" ... the hot gas observed with Chandra is colored red, and the galaxies in the optical image from Hubble appear as mostly white and yellow. The location of the majority of the matter in the cluster (dominated by dark matter) is colored blue. When the red and the blue regions overlap, the result is purple as seen in the image."

 http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2012/musketball/

 

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" ... hot gas as detected by Chandra is colored red ... starlight from the individual galaxies (yellow and orange) ... most of the matter in the cluster (blue) is dominated by dark matter." http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/a520/

 

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" ... X-rays (pink) combined with a dark matter map (blue, derived from weak lensing), along with the optical image ..." http://astronomy.fas.harvard.edu/high-energy-astrophysics

 

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"These two false-colour images compare the distribution of normal matter (red, left) with dark matter (blue, right) in the Universe. .. is the largest sample of the distribution of dark matter ever obtained. It demonstrates how normal matter - including stars, galaxies and gas - is built inside an underlying scaffolding of dark matter."

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2007/01/Comparison_of_

normal_matter_and_dark_matter_s_large_scale_structure

 

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(Top) "Artist’s impression of the Milky Way and its dark matter halo (shown in blue, but in reality invisible). Credit: ESO/L. Calçada" http://phys.org/news/2014-10-dark-thought-scientists.html#jCp

"The simulated distribution of dark matter in a Milky Way-like galaxy for standard, non-interacting dark matter ... The colours represent the density of dark matter, with red indicating high-density and blue indicating low-density."

http://www.ras.org.uk/news-and-press/2503-interactive-dark-matter-could-explain-milky-way-s-missing-satellite-galaxies

 

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"Brightness (blue-to-violet-to-red-to-yellow) corresponds to increasing concentration of dark matter. The bright central region corresponds roughly to the Milky Way’s luminous matter of gas and stars, and the bright clumps indicate dark-matter satellites orbiting our Milky Way galaxy which are known as 'substructure'."

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2014/09/cosmic-particles-detected-that-may-come-from-a-new-unknown-source-mit-dark-matter-research-team.html

 

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"Dark matter in diffuse blue." http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070516.html

 

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DARK MATTER "JACKET" SURROUNDS GALAXY—" ... appears to be encased in a shell of dark matter, ... it appears the object is massive enough to be a galaxy itself." http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13179-giant-gas-cloud-to-crash-into-our-galaxy.html

 

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"The center of the Boötes void ... ."keithwaynebrown.com

 

 


- -RELATED DATA-


"Is this just an unusual cluster, or could it be a sign of the existence of 'hot' dark matter? ... Galaxies are represented as peaks, and the central mountain is the dark matter in between the galaxies. ... a much smoother and less centrally concentrated distribution of dark matter in one cluster."

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/62854/394122a0.pdf?sequence=1

 

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"This figure shows the number density (red squares) for each brightness of the galaxies derived from observation in this study. Compared to past observation results (blue squares), galaxies approximately ten times as dark were detected. The curve shows the prediction by the theories of galaxy formation."

 http://www.almaobservatory.org/en/visuals/images/astronomy/?g2_itemId=4932

 


- OP ED -


 

DARK STARS ARE THE MATTER OF DARK MATTER

An army of scientists is finding the dark-star sections of the universe predicted to exist by W. J. Sidis in 1925. A team using the ALMA large array of radio telescopes in Chile has just reported finding 15 more.

No one is investigating this dark-star possibility yet. Astronomers are at present assuming these galaxies:

  • are devoid of stars

  • consist of diffuse dark matter made up of unknown particles

  • are an early phase of galaxy formation

  • are of the early universe

  • are inefficient at forming stars

  • are galaxies whose light is blocked by dark nebulas or cosmic dust.

Sidis would not agree:

"Our previous consideration on the production of radiant energy from the stars indicates that such production of radiant energy is only possible where the second law of thermodynamics is followed, that is, in a positive section of the universe. In a negative section of the universe the reverse process must take place; namely, space is full of radiant energy, presumably produced in the positive section of space, and the stars use this radiant energy to build up a higher level of heat. All radiant energy in that section of space would tend to be absorbed by the stars, which would thus constitute perfectly black bodies; and very little radiant energy would be produced in that section of space, but would mostly come from beyond the boundary surface. ... If we were on the positive side, as seems to be the case, then we could not see beyond such surface, though we might easily have gravitational or other evidence of bodies existing beyond that surface."The Animate and the Inanimate, Chap. XII

 

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THERE is a solitude of space,
A solitude of sea,
A solitude of death, but these
Society shall be,
Compared with that profounder site,
That polar privacy,
A Soul admitted to Itself:
Finite Infinity.

Dickinson

 

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STARS IN SLUMBER
 
Zoom into to a negative section
you'll find a huge volume of dark stars
still in their galaxies and filaments
but not giving off light
 
They've shone brilliantly in the past
and will yet again
alternating for eternity their
light-star and dark-star epochs

―Will Rike

 

 

 

Three Thoughts

Physicists and astronomers are not cosmologists by default. Their expertise doesn't automatically transfer to cosmology which is a branch of philosophy and thus requires a different kind of thinking.

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There is no "echo" of the Bang. It's just more of the infinite universe.

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Re Dark Matter: The unknown usually turns out to be a lot like the known.

 

 

 

WHAT?

"The visible universe appears to have a radius of 14 billion light years because the universe is about 14 billion years old. The light from more distant objects simply has not had time to reach us."atlasofhteuniverse.com

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"Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.”—Stephen Hawking wiki

 

—compiled by Dan Mahony (dan at sidis dot net)

 


-- NEWS ARCHIVE -


 

ALMA Telescope Finds 15 Extremely Dark Galaxies --Unidentified Until Now


TOKYO: June 2, 2013. Scientists using the ALMA telescope have discovered 15 previously unidentified, extremely dark galaxies buried deeply in cosmic dust. ... it is possible that many galaxies in the universe have been overlooked as much of that radiation is largely absorbed by cosmic dust, researchers said. .pdf  video of facility


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SCIENTISTS IN NASA DARK-MATTER CONTEST

 

The idea behind the challenge is to spur scientists, including those from fields outside astronomy, to come up with new insight into the problems of measuring dark matter and dark energy. Contestants are asked to solve galaxy puzzles involving millions of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A better understanding of the "dark side of the cosmos" may reveal new information about the very fabric and fate of our universe. ... The GREAT3 challenge is designed to improve methods for measuring weak lensing in preparation for future dark matter/dark energy missions. DATA HERE. NASA JPL, 11/26/ 2013

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HE0450-2958
.
HE0450-2958 is an unusual quasar (a star-like object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy). This one in particular has many large red shifts. HE0450-2958 has no visible host galaxy (a galaxy surrounding the quasar) detected around it. It has been suggested that this may be a dark galaxy in which a quasar has become active. However subsequent observations revealed that a normal host galaxy is probably present.wiki

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HVC 127-41-330

HVC 127-41-330 is a cloud at high speed between the Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy. Astronomer Josh Simon considers this cloud to be a dark galaxy because of the speed of its rotation and its predicted mass.
wiki

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HE0109-3518

Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic News—July 11, 2012
Eleven billion light-years away, strange, dark galaxies nearly devoid of stars have been finally spotted, according to a new study.Predicted in theory but never before observed,
these elusive objects appear to be similar to today's galaxies in that they're rich in gas. However, without any stars to light the gas, the galaxies have remained hidden from view. To find these cosmic ghosts, Cantalupo and colleagues took advantage of one of the brightest light sources in the cosmos—a quasar known as HE0109-3518. nationalgeographic.com/news/2012

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HE0109-3518

Wow! Dark Galaxies of the Early Universe Spotted- jul122012
For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted.
These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars.
Anne's Astronomy News

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VIRGOHI21 is an extended region of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Virgo cluster discovered in 2005. Analysis of its internal motion indicates that it may contain a large amount of dark matter, as much as a small galaxy. Since VIRGOHI21 apparently contains no stars, this would make it one of the first detected dark galaxies.

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11JUL2012 - For the first time, dark galaxies — an early phase of galaxy formation, predicted by theory but unobserved until now — may have been spotted. These objects are essentially gas-rich galaxies without stars. Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, an international team thinks they have detected these elusive objects by observing them glowing as they are illuminated by a quasar. Because they are essentially devoid of stars, these dark galaxies don’t emit much light, making them very hard to detect. For years astronomers have been trying to develop new techniques that could confirm the existence of these galaxies. Small absorption dips in the spectra of background sources of light have hinted at their existence. However, this new study marks the first time that such objects have been seen directly. Univ. of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Published on 11/07/2012

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FEB. 23, 2005—An international team of astronomers from the UK, France, Italy and Australia REPORTS first observation of a dark galaxy

 

 

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 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSE

 Re-Visualization of Millennium Simulation Project image.